Java Special Characters

), in MySQL, it messes them up and returns a question mark in place of these characters when retrieved from the database. println() statements to advance to the next line after the string is printed. strTemp is the string returned by the function and strFinal is the finished data. This Java tutorial series will help you get started learning Java programming from the basics. You can enter any UTF-16 Symbol in a string by using a Unicode literal. The Exported file contains special/different characters in between the text. In my earlier article, I have given you couple of methods to escape single quote in string. If the source data contains special characters, the FOR JSON clause escapes them in the JSON output with \, as shown in the following table. If you are looking for removal for special and junk characters, you can use strings filename otherwise, if you want to remove some specified special characters you can do sed 's/[[email protected]#\$%^&*()]//g' filename include what ever special characters you want to remove in the square braces of above sed. Java Insert Special Character & to MySQL Database How to insert the "logical and" (&) to MySQL database? You may try to escape the "&" character, but it doesn't work. e it treats ‘A’ and ‘a’ as two different characters. The backslash in combination with a literal character can create a regex token with a special meaning. It is intended for use on all computer systems, not just Windows, and covers Chinese, Japanese and Korean as well as the alphabets for many other languages and scripts, plus a large number of special characters. The method mentioned in previous post will help in case of direct SQL and HQL. should be escaped with a '%' followed by the hexidecimal encoding of the character. Some Unicode support has been included in Microsoft Windows since Windows 95, and Windows NT 4, Windows 2000, Windows XP,. Java support lot of Unicode symbols from many more human languages for this purpose, it requires 16 bits. Also, in a blog post on special characters in URLs, you might want to mention Punycode. Whenever this code is encountered in a string, it is replaced with a double quotation mark. Thus, if the first thing a makefile does is examine the last word in this. In this C program to check Alphabet, digit or special character, we are using the alphabets and digits directly inside the Else If Statement. In this tutorial we will go ver very simple example of grabbing everything after special character _ and *. By using java. All characters apart from the special character (~ in this case) gets replaced. The backslash ( \) character is used to escape characters that otherwise have a special meaning, such as newline, backslash itself, or the quote character. 1 Whitespace characters. This is the function CheckmyForm. Type Special Characters with a Chromebook (Accents, Symbols, Em Dashes). We come across files and folders name very regularly. > > String s = new String("\u0141") is displayed correctly as a special > character in PDF generated by iText, however, if i read the same String from > Database, the plain text is displayed i. To clarify this answer, these special characters could interfere with parsing a command line (or path) if they were in a filename. The keywords instanceof and new are also considered operators in Java. Java Program to Find Frequency/Occurrence of Characters in String. Escaping Special Characters in a Pattern. You can still use those symbols too, similar to the above examples, as long as you know the correct character codes \xXX or \uXXXX or &#XXX;. Java String is, however, special. In Java a char is a value, much like an int. In this C program to check Alphabet, digit or special character, we are using the alphabets and digits directly inside the Else If Statement. Unfortunately, there is no similar method that would tell us if we're dealing with one of the special characters. In SGML, HTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly (representing itself), or can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a numeric character reference and a character entity reference. Given a string, that contains special character together with alphabets (‘a’ to ‘z’ and ‘A’ to ‘Z’), reverse the string in a way that special characters are not affected. The remaining 43 belong to the common script. Control Characters | 1963 Historical Table The following document lists the control characters in Ascii and in newer character code standards like Unicode™ , which is compatible with Ascii in the Ascii code range (positions 0 through 127). Certain characters are taken to have special meaning within the context of an HTML document. Net String Escape / Unescape Escapes or unescapes a Java or. There is no clear hierarchy here, you can read articles in the order you want. plz give solution for this. In JavaScript you can add special characters to a text string by using the backslash sign. Character data Type : Java Primitive Data Types In Java, the data type used to store characters is char. In this post, we will discuss how to convert List of Characters to String in Java. Many users have settings giving underlined links. The output can be surrounded by single quotes to form a syntactically valid Java character literal. JavaScript Code Snippet - Allow Numbers in TextBox, Restrict Alphabets and Special Characters JavaScript function. ISO 8859 Family. The HL7 standard lets you choose your own as long as you show them in the MSH segment. List of extra topics that assume you've covered the first two parts of tutorial. This symbol is normally called "backslash". Supplementary characters are characters in the Unicode standard whose code points are above U+FFFF, and which therefore cannot be described as single 16-bit entities such as the char data type in the Java programming language. For example, \" is a control sequence for displaying quotation marks on the screen. We will also learn how to join the split String in Java. If you want to match for that explicit character and not use it with its special meaning, you need to escape it with the backslash character first. Problem is, the password has a special character (@) in it that is causing the set command to fail. My program asks the user to input the name of a file, and the program reads the text in the file and determines how many blanks spaces, digits, letters, and special characters are in the. Count Unique Characters In A String Here is a java example that counts the number of unique characters in a string without using Sets or Maps. JavaScript Special Characters « Previous; Next » JavaScript support special characters to text string using backslash Sign(\). That's a good idea. It's also the only one with such a neat and clean design. Escaping of special characters. You can add text to a chart that includes Greek letters and special characters using TeX markup. Character sequences The string class has been briefly introduced in an earlier chapter. Character is 16 bits wide in Java. If possible, kindly share the code. Java: a rough guide to character encoding It can be tricky figuring out the difference between character handling code that works and code that just appears to work because testing did not encounter cases that exposed bugs. For example, if you wanted String A to have the value:. Almost all writing systems using these days represent. In this tutorial we will go ver very simple example of grabbing everything after special character _ and *. There are other special characters as well, that have special meaning in a regexp. Following table shows the Java escape sequences −. The source file name consists of the case-sensitive name of the top-level class it contains (of which there is exactly one), plus the. Every time you call the method, the program should generate random string. This article describes how supplementary characters are supported in the Java platform. The string will be chopped to "We are the so-called ". txt"); InputStreamReader in = new InputStreamReader(fis,. Most Java program text consists of ASCII characters, but any Unicode character can be used as part of identifier names, in comments, and in character and string literals. This escaping occurs both in the names of properties and in their values. Often times, we encountered some special characters or arbitrary text placed in an HTML tag that resulting an invalid HTML output. 1 and Ruby 1. The backslash gives special meaning to the character following it. While the Alt key is pressed, type the sequence of numbers (on the numeric keypad) from the Alt code in the table below. To explain more about this, i will reuse the same example explained in the above post. Escape characters (also called escape sequences or escape codes) are used to signal an alternative interpretation of a series of characters. Whenever this code is encountered in a string, it is replaced with a double quotation mark. String buffers. Program #1: Java Program to get first two characters of a String. There are also Greek letters, a copyright sign, currency signs and a trademark sign. A regex defines a set of strings, usually united for a given purpose. The Java regular expression syntax has a few predefined character classes you can use. There are other special characters as well, that have special meaning in a regexp. Character may contain a single Letter, Digit, Punctuation Mark, Symbol, Formatting Code and etc. This document contains special characters. Unicode Characters in the Geometric Shapes Block. You'll be able to study them slowly, and to use them as a cheat sheet later, when you are reading the rest of the site or experimenting with your own regular expressions. I have tried both escaping the character (\@) and percent-encoding it with the hex value (%40), to no avail. As you can see, this example program creates a String. For normal text (not markup), there are no special characters except < and &: just make sure your XML Declaration refers to the correct encoding scheme for the language and/or writing system you want to use, and that your computer correctly stores the file using that encoding scheme. String is treated as an object in Java so we can't directly access the characters that comprise a string. So it’s a special character in regexps (just like in regular strings). How to remove non ascii characters from String in Java? Many a times you want to remove non ascii characters from the String. Java program to print ascii value of all uppercase alphabets. JavaScript tutorial: Special characters. To include special characters inside XML files you must use the numeric character reference instead of that character. you need to modify the code little bit to skip non alphanumeric characters. Here are three of the possibly many ways to achieve the same off the top of my head (considering space as a non- specia. See the tables below, or see Keyboard shortcuts for international characters for a list of ASCII characters. They can be used to search, edit, or manipulate text and data. HL7 Separator Characters. The following list includes the HTML codes for many of the ASCII symbols used on Web pages. write(txt);. from copying and pasting the text from an MS Word document or web browser, PDF-to-text conversion or HTML-to-text conversion. CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci 2. MAKEFILE_LIST. Regular expressions provides one of the simplest ways to find whether string contains special characters or not in java. So it’s a special character in regexps (just like in regular strings). You may see a blank space in Notepad but that doesn't mean the character is decimal 32 (Ascii Table). Java Program to Check Whether a Character is Alphabet or Not In this program, you'll learn to check whether a given character is an alphabet or not. A character which is not an alphabet or numeric character is called a special character. In JavaScript you can add special characters to a text string by using the backslash sign. These characters are different from the alphanumeric and punctuation characters that you’re used to using. Write a program in Java to find ASCII value of a Character : ASCII or American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a character encoding standard to represent characters in computers. The following JavaScript code checks whether the string is content only letters and numbers. compile(""); Then use the find() method on the Matcher object to check for a match. 1 Whitespace characters. To count a different character, replace the comma in '[^,]' to another character, such as a lowercase x ('[^x]'). The template/message may contain special characters. By using a 7-bit binary number, a character is defined. Java String "alphanumeric" tip: How to remove non-alphanumeric characters from a Java String. Enables ragged arrays. This launches the Symbol window, which contains two tabs. Java regex to allow only alphanumeric characters By Lokesh Gupta | Filed Under: Regular Expressions We can use the given regular expression used to validate user input in such a way that it allows only alphanumeric characters. Subsequent characters may be letters, digits, dollar signs, or underscore characters. ASCII was originally designed for use with teletypes, and so the descriptions are somewhat obscure and their use is frequently not as intended. Special Characters Cheat Sheet. Character data Type : Java Primitive Data Types In Java, the data type used to store characters is char. Password special characters is an selection of punctuation characters that are present on standard US keyboard and frequently used in passwords. CHARACTER TABULATION LINE FEED (LF) ! ! ! ! EXCLAMATION MARK " " " " ". Greek Letters and Special Characters in Chart Text. Along with commands and keywords, special characters are building blocks of Bash scripts. The easiest way to set a charset in your HTML is by using the Content-Type META tag. Convert Chinese characters to Unicode. How to get first two characters of a string in java. Type Special Characters with a Chromebook (Accents, Symbols, Em Dashes). Often times, we encountered some special characters or arbitrary text placed in an HTML tag that resulting an invalid HTML output. regular expression validation: how to exclude special characters but not space and - [Answered] RSS 5 replies Last post Jan 06, 2012 12:39 AM by rizwanahmed231. In fact, they fall into these categories: Control: An application requires some means of determining that a particular character. Sample Program:-. This escaping occurs both in the names of properties and in their values. ,;:[email protected]#$%^&*()_" etc. This is the function CheckmyForm. Here another snippet to convert a String to HTML. Did you ever want to, or need to, enter a special character that is not on your keyboard? Like 72° instead of 72 degrees? Or. Character is 16 bits wide in Java. Regular expressions provides one of the simplest ways to find whether string contains special characters or not in java. To see them, press and hold the corresponding key until a group of special characters or symbols appears. how to remove all the special characters from a string in java. For example, space characters or '#' characters etc. In Java construct the String with a StringBuilder and then pass the value into a normal iBatis parameter #{value}. Java String character stripping. Each is examined here. An object of type Character contains a single field, whose type is char. To find the frequency or occurrence of a particular characters present in the string or sentence, you have to ask to the user to enter the string, now start searching for that character and increase the number of presence and display the frequency of character present in the string. I assume this makes utf8 the default character set and collation. Special characters like the dot(. Table 2 shows a sample list of the ASCII Control Characters. Convert the input String into a character array using toCharArray() method. In this C program to check Alphabet, digit or special character, we are using the alphabets and digits directly inside the Else If Statement. This is the best character counting website i've found so far. There are many ways to escape HTML meta characters in Java, some of them we have already seen in last article escaping XML metacharacters in Java. To make special characters and accented letters show up on your pages, use a special set of codes called character entities, which you insert into your HTML code and which your browser will. All other characters should not be escaped with a backslash. You will also notice that there are a lot of special characters like "NULL" (number 0), "TAB" (number 9), and "CAN" (number 24). Java Remove Character from String, Java String Remove, Java Remove spaces from String, Java remove last character from string, java remove substring from string, java code to remove characters from string,. Digit at start is not allowed. It takes the String to escape as a parameter and returns the String with Java escape characters inserted. The special characters often needs to be altered or escape to ensure the resulting HTML is still valid. And here is my validation expression which is for eight characters including one uppercase letter, one lowercase letter, and one number or special character. Unlike C/C++, where string is simply an array of char, A Java String is an object of the class java. jEdit uses regular expressions from java. Although the characters that comprise a string within a String object cannot be indexed as if they were a character array, many of the String methods employ an index (or offset) into the string for their operation. A string is a sequence of zero or more Unicode characters, wrapped in double quotes, using backslash escapes. In JavaScript you can add special characters to a text string by using the backslash sign. In this example, the special characters available for the e key are shown in Windows Mobile. regular expression validation: how to exclude special characters but not space and - [Answered] RSS 5 replies Last post Jan 06, 2012 12:39 AM by rizwanahmed231. Hi All, I'm trying to connect to a SQL Server 2005 db using jTDS 1. This regular expression will be in used in Java. These terms have more of a "logical" meaning, and really aren't correct for the intended use. Clean Special Characters from Word Text or HTML Code. There are also Greek letters, a copyright sign, currency signs and a trademark sign. A matrix with m rows and n columns is actually an array of length m, each entry of which is an array of length n. Along with commands and keywords, special characters are building blocks of Bash scripts. Following example will help you to replace special characters in a java string. Encryption always produces "special characters" because it converts the input (from text or whatever it was) to a collection of bytes - which aren't characters, they are eight bit values which may contain valid characters but are more likely not to. getParameter(). Character In Java: Literally, a Java character is a primitive type. Net and must be properly escaped to be used within strings:. Character is 16 bits wide in Java. Java Remove Character from String, Java String Remove, Java Remove spaces from String, Java remove last character from string, java remove substring from string, java code to remove characters from string,. The special characters often needs to be altered or escape to ensure the resulting HTML is still valid. Problem parsing JSON data special characters. The Exported file contains special/different characters in between the text. Encryption always produces "special characters" because it converts the input (from text or whatever it was) to a collection of bytes - which aren't characters, they are eight bit values which may contain valid characters but are more likely not to. The backslash (\) escape character turns special characters into string characters:. 15 has latin1 as the default character set and collation. Subsequent characters may be letters, digits, dollar signs, or underscore characters. How to Remove Special Characters from String in Java. Attendees; CalendarContract. For example, if you wanted String A to have the value:. Following Java Character isDigit() Example illustrates. Such as infinity sign, fractions, operators. -- With Regards, Nageswara Rao. This is a list of all the special HTML (ISO 8859-1) characters you can create. Type the escape character \. In this post, we will discuss how to convert List of Characters to String in Java. *; /** * This is a utility class to encode special characters and do formatting * for HTML output. While the Alt key is pressed, type the sequence of numbers (on the numeric keypad) from the Alt code in the table below. C# Javascript Java PHP Python Lesson 15: Other special characters This lesson will cover some extra metacharacters, as well as the results of captured groups. Input character from the user will determine if it's Alphabet, Number or Special character. A character preceded by a backslash (\) is an escape sequence and has a special meaning to the compiler. HTML codes to put ASCII special characters on your Web page. /** * */ package xyz; import com. The backslash must be there or it won't render the character. Java represents a two-dimensional array as an array of arrays. Encryption always produces "special characters" because it converts the input (from text or whatever it was) to a collection of bytes - which aren't characters, they are eight bit values which may contain valid characters but are more likely not to. Character may contain a single Letter, Digit, Punctuation Mark, Symbol, Formatting Code and etc. escaping special characters in JSON. Values 8, 9, 10, and 13 convert to backspace, tab, linefeed, and carriage return characters, respectively. Removing accents and special characters in Java: StringUtils. Amod Mahajan 2 Comments on Frequently Asked Java Program 21: Java Program to Find & Print All Special Characters with Their Positions in a String Posted in Frequently Asked Java Programs In Interview This programming interview question was asked in Yodlee. This article describes how supplementary characters are supported in the Java platform. In this post we will learn how to check string contains special characters using regex (regular expression) in java. txt file having east European characters (like, say, German) created in ANSI file format (which is default of notepad on Windows) in java using BuuferedReader and InputStreamReader,with utf-8 encoding set for the instance of latter, then also I get " " symbols in Java. I was able to accomplish this by defining an escape character and by using the compress function with the 'k' flag in SAS9 but we are still few months away from migrating to SAS9 in our production environment and thus I have to program in SAS8. In this post, we will discuss how to convert a string to a list of characters in Java by using Streams, IntStream, Guava library Chars and Lists class. *; /** * This is a utility class to encode special characters and do formatting * for HTML output. In order to prevent the misinterpretation of special characters such as a space, bracket (< and >), or % in the URL (which stands for Uniform Resource Locator - it is the address you see in your browser's address bar indicating the location of the website you are visiting), browsers parse certain special characters using URL escape. I tried checking it with all special characters one by one but i feel its not a very good idea, a better thing would be to check each character first for an alphabet(A-z or a-z) else for a number else it is a special chacter. Java Remove Character from String, Java String Remove, Java Remove spaces from String, Java remove last character from string, java remove substring from string, java code to remove characters from string,. I'm making a Java program that will analyze the given String by counting the lowercase, uppercase, numbers and special characters. To include special characters inside XML files you must use the numeric character reference instead of that character. Since there is no method for checking this directly in Java, we better take the baton in our own hands in order to develop one. It simply returns a substring of the specific string based on number of operations like indexOf() or lastIndexOf(). Notice it did not require casting the characters to integers or having the compiler complain. Escape characters (also called escape sequences or escape codes) are used to signal an alternative interpretation of a series of characters. com - About. Letters, digits, punctuation. To count a different character, replace the comma in '[^,]' to another character, such as a lowercase x ('[^x]'). import java. how to remove all the special characters from a string in java. Most of these special characters are abbreviated, so they are spelled out more clearly to the right. This type of testing is useful in situations like constraints on password s, employee id etc. Description: Below example shows how to get replace character or a string into a string with the given string. The abstract class Reader has various concrete flavours, of which an important examples is InputStreamReader. MS Excel How to insert symbols and special characters for beginners and professionals with topics of ribbon and tabs, quick access toolbar, mini toolbar, buttons, worksheet, data manipulation, formatting, function, formula, vlookup, isna and more. Before looking at how to perform an character encoding, let's see how many encodings are supported in Java 11 using the availableCharsets() static method in the. So, when we transfer the file, which is in EBCDIC format, to Window, which accepts. If Hashamap already contains char,increase its count by 1, else put char in HashMap; If value of Char is more than 1, that means it is duplicate character in that String; Java Program to find duplicate Characters in a String. Escape special characters in hibernate criteria This is the continuation of my previous post. It's the only one that includes total characters, characters without white space, and total words. Letters, digits, punctuation. The same hexadecimal number must be used in javascript as well. The Exported file contains special/different characters in between the text. help/imprint (Data Protection). The following table lists the HTML entities, character codes, and URL-encodings for mathematical and special symbols. Encryption always produces "special characters" because it converts the input (from text or whatever it was) to a collection of bytes - which aren't characters, they are eight bit values which may contain valid characters but are more likely not to. A string is a sequence of zero or more Unicode characters, wrapped in double quotes, using backslash escapes. A Java String contains an immutable sequence of Unicode characters. Every programming language has it's special characters - characters that mean something special such as identifying a variable, the end of a line or a break in some data. Java regex to allow only alphanumeric characters By Lokesh Gupta | Filed Under: Regular Expressions We can use the given regular expression used to validate user input in such a way that it allows only alphanumeric characters. Character is 16 bits wide in Java. ASCII was developed a long time ago and now the non-printing characters are rarely used for their original purpose. There are 128 possible characters. Sep 5 2014 8:32 AM. Hi All, I'm trying to connect to a SQL Server 2005 db using jTDS 1. I want all characters apart from A-Z a-z 0-9. Most commonly, escape characters are used to solve the problem of using special characters inside a string declaration. following three examples will show you the way to replace special characters from a java string. Insert Special Characters The backslash (\) is used to insert apostrophes, new lines, quotes, and other special characters into a text string. I have this problem as well. Following table shows the Java escape sequences −. Java program to display number of Uppercase letters, Lowercase letters, Numerals, Vowels, Spaces and Special characters contained in a string entered by the user. HOW TO CHECK WHETHER A STRING CONTAINS SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN JAVA HOW TO CHECK WHETHER A STRING CONTAINS SPECIAL CHARACTERS IN JAVA. The backslash (\) escape character turns special characters into string characters:. The Special Characters tab is a rather short list of commonly used characters. In this tutorial, you will see to letter count we are not going to use any of special methods or functions while count number of characters in a string java. encoding=UTF8 on your java commands. find() return true else false matcher. I am preserving the special characters as per the below guide. Java Examples: Strings - Find Special Characters In A String. Java Program to remove special characters from string in a file September 23, 2018 By Mr. Java regex to allow only alphanumeric characters By Lokesh Gupta | Filed Under: Regular Expressions We can use the given regular expression used to validate user input in such a way that it allows only alphanumeric characters. There is not a method that does exactly what you are looking for, but the good news is that it is actually fairly simple to escape all of the special characters in a Java regular expression: regex. For example, if all characters EXCEPT letters of the alphabet, spaces and single-quotes are "special", then you can ignore the "special" characters in comparisons like this:. In this post we will learn how to check string only contains special characters using regex (regular expression) in java. ASCII Alphabet Characters - decimal and binary values. 2), for denoting spaces and dashes. What makes a character special? If it has a meaning beyond its literal meaning, a meta-meaning, then we refer to it as a special character. Following table list are JavaScript special characters that can add to text string with the backslash sign: JavaScript Special Characters. We come across files and folders name very regularly. If it is alphabet then print whether it is capital or small alphabet. I'm new to c++ and I wonder how do you display special characters to the console. following three examples will show you the way to replace special characters from a java string. I'm looking to use the compress function to remove the special characters but I'm running into issues getting rid of it. C# Javascript Java PHP Python Lesson 15: Other special characters This lesson will cover some extra metacharacters, as well as the results of captured groups. , sequences containing \t, , \r). In JavaScript you can add special characters to a text string by using the backslash sign. txt file having east European characters (like, say, German) created in ANSI file format (which is default of notepad on Windows) in java using BuuferedReader and InputStreamReader,with utf-8 encoding set for the instance of latter, then also I get " " symbols in Java. The special characters often needs to be altered or escape to ensure the resulting HTML is still valid. + One or more The special text language used has some. Removing accents and special characters in Java: StringUtils. Simple solution would be to iterate through the list and create a new string with the help of StringBuilder class as shown below:. If you only have to enter a few special characters or symbols, you can use the Character Map or type keyboard shortcuts. The characters from the table above can be used directly as 8-bit characters in all Wiki pages, and are sufficient for all pages primarily in English, Spanish, French, German, and languages that require no more special characters than those (such as Catalan). To print all the characters of a string, we are running a for loop from 0 to length of string - 1 and displaying the character at each iteration of the loop using the charAt() method. Note that this is not proper usage of "pass by value" and "pass by reference" semantics: RMI "Pass-by. Problem is, the password has a special character (@) in it that is causing the set command to fail. Sorting may be incorrect. Here is a string containing special characters: You can manipulate this string just as you would any other:. Description: Below example shows how to get replace character or a string into a string with the given string. Following table shows the Java escape sequences −. Whenever this code is encountered in a string, it is replaced with a double quotation mark. This symbol is normally called "backslash". Character The 16-bit Unicode character set underlies both the Java source program and char data type. A character is represented as a single character string. Unlike C/C++, where string is simply an array of char, A Java String is an object of the class java. Java, in fact, uses UTF-16 for String and StringBuffer. Description Symbol / Unicode ASCII ASCII URL URL HTML 4 HTML 4 Escape Flash Char (hex) (decimal) (hex) Encoded (AS2) Encoded (AS3) Entity Number Entity Name Sequence (UK keyboard). left and right apostrophes, left and right quotes, copyright symbol etc. Description: Write a program to generate random string of length 10 charactors. There are also Greek letters, a copyright sign, currency signs and a trademark sign. -- With Regards, Nageswara Rao. I'm new to c++ and I wonder how do you display special characters to the console. To display an accented character in a JavaScript alert message or a confirm dialog box, use the hexadecimal code of the character, for example: alert('\xC5ngstr\xF6m is a unit of length. Almost all writing systems using these days represent. Press and hold the Alt key. Although the characters that comprise a string within a String object cannot be indexed as if they were a character array, many of the String methods employ an index (or offset) into the string for their operation.